When the wright brothers made their first flight in a motorized plane on a wind-swept beach in
1903, it was a small jump, jump and jump into the record books, moves over 70 years later one sunny
plane. “Sunrise 1”, designed by Ray Buchard on November 4, 1974, performed his first maiden flight.

And flew for 20 minutes at the height of about 100 m, which was an uncrewed vehicle. Improved version,
Sunrise II was built and tested on September 12, 1975. The first solar-powered flights with
Planes in Europe were lost by Fred Militky and Helmut Bruss in 1976, his complete model, “Solaris.”
Three 150-second flights to a height of 50m.

 

Larry Mauro used this concept to charge the battery on Earth using their solar panels, and then they make short flights. Gossamer Penguin realized what can be considered the world’s first solar-powered and piloted flight. On July 7, 1981, the following version, called Solar Challenger crossed the Channel with solar energy as the only energy source

Solar-powered planes.

Unlike an air-breathing engine, a solar-powered aircraft is not dependent on the atmosphere for
energy production. No harmful exhaust gases are emitted, and thus do not pollute the atmosphere and are environmentally friendly. The ultimate goal of a solar-powered aircraft is to be able to fly continuously. The concept is quite simple; it is equipped with solar cells covering its wing and recovers energy.
from the Sun to deliver fuel to the propulsion system and onboard instruments From scratch
The power source, the Sun, is not available all day. To make it possible for recharge,
an energy storage system would be necessary.

 

This energy storage system would have to provide enough power to keep the plane at the desired height all night. Also, the solar system would have to be able to recharge this energy storage system during the day as well as maintain a power level of the aircraft to fly at night, the only available power comes from the battery. There have recently been significant advances in flexible solar cells, high energy density batteries, miniaturized MEMS and CMOS sensors, and efficient processors. Solar cells can be a real source of energy in UAV for several reasons.

The density of solar energy increases with altitude from ݉ܿ ܹ݉ 80ଶ⁄ (AM 1.5) on the ground to ݉ܿ ܹ݉ 136.7 ଶ⁄ in space (AMO). The design of a vehicle that can only work with solar energy must maintain the right balance between energy storage and energy consumption, so the creation of the solar plane must be carefully and globally thought out as a system made up of multiple subsystems that continuously exchange energy, and the main challenges that must be solved for a solar-powered plane to maximize solar energy storage are the geographical area of operation (latitude).

 

Orientation and slope of the surface of the solar cells concerning the horizon. Climate (clouds, humidity, temperature). Energy collection and use. Season and time of day mission profiles. Cargo. Typical design parameter for different tasks. Height also plays an important role. Although wind does not affect the aircraft’s energy production, it has a significant impact on its aerodynamic efficiency and energy consumption, limiting the usability of solar-powered aircraft.

 

HALE aircraft has a huge wingspan and shape factor, causing large structural deformations in flight and aero-elastic instability. Figure 2 shows some of the solar-powered aircraft in the early phase. E. Schoeberl has published an article, especially on the efficiency of the propulsion group elements and aerodynamics, and A. J. Colozzo has discussed solar cells and their integration in detail. For a solar plane as a future transport, vehicle to become a solid knowledge in the field of aerodynamics, actuators, sensors, electronics, energy storage, photovoltaics, etc.. For optimization to be possible, an excellent experience is necessary.

SOLAR ENERGY

The solar energy available per unit area depends on atmospheric conditions and atmospheric gas concentration. The radiation emitted by the Sun, outside the Earth’s atmosphere is almost constant, and a useful parameter to measure the available solar energy is the solar constant.

 

In a panel that is normal for radiation, the power per unit area at a given latitude and on the ninth day of the year depends on the actual position of the Earth along its elliptical path over the Sun. The law of variation as a function of the day of the year ߮ is latitude.

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߱ The solar energy gives the angle of the sunset hour ߜ the declination angle per unit area available outside the atmosphere is 3601 0.033 cos Cossin sin365oscnII (1) The total solar energy per unit area in period T is given by integrating the above equation (1) over, latitude and position of photovoltaic panels. An ideal and perfect solar cell that would cover the entire spectrum and convert all this energy into electricity would have 100% efficiency. Depending on the semiconductors used, only part of this spectrum is covered & paneles solares guatemala
.

 

In addition to direct irradiation, we must also consider diffuse irradiation, which dominates cloudy days and reflects irradiation. Reflected radiation depends on albedo, which is a measure of the reflectivity of the Earth’s surface.